McDougal Littell Answers for Marketing and Business


Warming- the process of transforming objects and places to feel cozy and authentic.

15

Age cohort- people of similar ages who have similar experiences

Autonomy v belonging-independence struggle

Revellion v conformity- need to rebel

Idealism v pragmatism- viewing adults as hypocrites and kids as reasonable

Narcissim v intimacy- own appearance and needs v connecting w others

tweens- 8-14 between kid and adolescent

gen y- millenials , eco bombers

connexity- feeling loose but connected with your homies

marketing to kids- don’t talk down, stay true to brand image, entertain men and keep it short, show that you know what they are going through, but keep it light

gen x- born from 66 to 76.

Baby boomer- 46 to 64

Gray market-older adults. Control 50 percent of discretionary income.

Autonomy, connectedness, altruism(giving back)

Perceived age- how old a person feels

16

Culture- a society’s personality. An accumulation of shared meanings, rituals, norms, and traditions among members of a society

Ecology- way a system adapts to its habitat

Social structure- the way people maintain orderly social life

Ideology-mental characteristics of a people and the way they relate to their environment and social groups

Enacted – simple rule, stoplight

Crescive norms- more subtle and hidden

Custom- handed down from others, controls basic behaviors

McDougal Littell Answers for Marketing and Business

More- a custom with a strong moral overtone, usually involves a taboo

Conventions- norms regarding conduct of everyday life

Myth- a story with symbolic elements that represent a culture’s ideals

Metaphysical- help explain existence

Cosmological- emphasizes unity among all aspects of life

Sociological- maintain social code for members of society

Psychological- models for personal conduct.

Monomyth-a myth that is common to many cultures

Ritual-a set of multiple, symbolic behaviors that occurs in a fixed sequence and is repeated periodically

Fortress brands- brands that are closely linked to our rituals.

Ritual artifacts- items we need to perform rituals.

Grooming rituals-sequences to transform private self to public self

Antifestival –an event that distorts symbols we associate with other holidays

Rites  of passage- rituals we perform to mark a change in social status. Separation, liminality, aggregation

Sacred consumption- when we set apart objects and events from normal activities.

Profane consumption­- ordinary and everyday objects

Contamination- transforms a spot to a sacred place

Desacralization- when a sacred object loses its specialness

Sacralization- when ordinary objects take on a sacred meaning.

McDougal Littell Answers for Marketing and Business Collecting- systematic acquisition of objects

Hoarding – unsystematic collecting

 

Aplia Answers   = Aplia-Answers.com

McDougal Littell Political Science Answers

McDougal Littell Answers

Interpersonal need- a person’s level of interest in a group.

Product involvement and utility- the degree to which a person will use the product to satisfy a need

Responsibility-procurement, maintenance, payment, so on

Power- the degree to which one family members exerts their influence over others

Autonomic decision- one member chooses a product

Syncretic decision- a decision that involves boths partners

Gender convergence- men and women having similar roles in the households rather than stereotypical roles.

family financial officer FFO-the individual who tracks the family’s bills and decides how to spend the rest

kin-network system- performing rituals to maintain tires among family members

four factors appear to determine the degree of which one of the spouses decide what to buy:

sex-role stereotypes- couples who believe in traditional sex role stereotypes

spousal resources- the spouse who contributes more resources to the family  has greater influence

experience- couples who have gained experience as a decision-making unit make individual decisions more frequently

socioeconomic status- middle-class families make more joint decision than do either higher or lower class families

synoptic idea- calls for husband and wife to take common view and act as joint decision makers

children make up 3 distinct markets:

Primary market- their own wants and needs.

Influence Market- result of parental tielding, child influenced shoppers

Parental yielding- occurs when a parental decision maker surrenders to a child’s request. Nag factor

Future market- growing up into adults with locked on brand loyalty.

Consumer socialization- the process by which young people aquire skills, and attitudes relevant to their position in the marketplace.

Stages of cognitive development- ability to comprehend concepts of increasing complexity

Limited- children who are younger than 6, don’t employ storage and retrieval skills

Cued- 6-12, employ these stratagies when prompted

Strategic- 12­+ who spontaneously employ storage and retrieval strategies.

13

Status symbols- products that are used as markers of social class

Discretionary income- the money available to a household over and above what it requires to have a confortable standard of living.

Brand aspirationals- people with low incomes who are obsessed with brand names

Price-sensitive affluents- wealthier shoppers who love deals McDougal Littell

Value-price shoppers- those who like low prices and cannot afford much more

Behavioral economics- economic psychology,  studies the human side of ecomonic decisions

Consumer confidence-reflects the extent to which peole are optimistic or pessimistic about the future health of the economy.

Social class- overall rank in society

Homogamy- assortative mating. Birds of a feather flock together

Social stratification- the creation of artificial divisions

Status hierchy – a structure of people in a social group.

social mobility- passage of individuals from one social class to another

horizontal – from position to position but same social class

occupational prestige- how your occupation displays status

income- great factor in social class

status crystallization- stress occurs because the rewards from each part of a persons life are unpredictable

problems w measuring social class-

ignore status inconsistency, ignore intergenerational mobility, ignore subjective social class, ignore consumers aspirations to change class standing, they ignore the social class of working wives

Restricted codes- working/lower class. Focus on the content of objects.

Elaborated code- more complex and depend on sophisticated world view.

Habitus- taste is a statu-marking force

Cultural capital- set of distinctive and socially rare tastes and practices-upper class.

Conspicuous consumption- to refer to peoples desires to provide prominate visible evidence of their ability to afford luxury goods.

Parody display- reverse gears in status symbols, and mock them.

14

Subculture- group memberships within a society

Mircoculture- ‘tuners’ freely choose to identify with a lifestyle

Ethnic subculture- a self-perpetuating group of consumers who share common cultural or generic ties, where both members and outsiders recognize it as a distinct category.

High context culture-group members closely knit,  symbolys and gestures carry the weight.

Low context culture- words carry the weight, very literal.

Deethnicization– when a product we associate with a specific group detaches itself from its roots and becomes mass marketed

Acculturation-process of movement and adaptation to one country’s cultural environment by a person from another country.

Acculturation agents- people and institutions that teach the ways of a culture.

Progressive learning model- assums that people gradually learn about a new culture as they increasingly come in contact with it

McDougal Littell Answers, Marketing p 2

McDougal Littell Answers

Antecedent states- situational factors, usage contexts, time pressure, mood, shopping orientation.

Purchase environment- the shopping experience, Point-Of-Purchase stimuli, Sales Interactions

Postpurchase Processes- customer satisfaction, product disposal, alternative markets.

Situational self-image- the role she plays at any one time.

Co-consumer- the other patrons in a setting, actually a product attribute.

Time poverty- a feeling of being pressed for time

Social dimension ­– time for me or time for others

Temporal orientation dimension-depicts the relative significance individuals attach to past,present, future

Planning orientation dimension- alludes to different time management styles varying on a continuum from analytic to spontaneous.

Polychromic orientation- distinguishing people who do one thing at a time from people who multitask.

Timestyle- an individuals priorities determine this

McDougal Littell Answers Chapter 7

Linear separable time- events proceed in an orderly sequence and there is a time and placefor everything

Procedural time- ignores clock, things are done when time is right

Cyclic time-time is a natural cycle of regular occurances.

Queuing theory- the mathematical study of waiting in lines.

Pleasure and Arousal are the two basic dimensions of a consumption environment.

Shopping orientation- general attitudes about shopping.

Hedonic shopping motives: (for the experience)

Social Experiences- having a fun time with others

Sharing of common interests-communicating with those of similar interests

McDougal Littell Answers Chapter 6

Interpersonal attraction- having activities and a feeling of belonging

Instant status- feeling special when shopping

Thrill of the hunt- thrill of haggling and bargoning

Retail theming- transports shoppers to fantasy worlds or other kinds of simulation to entertain.

Being space- resembles a commercial living room

Minipreneurs- one person besiness

Popup stores- temporary makeshift installations that do business for a limited period of time

Store image- personality of the store.

Atmospherics – the conscious designing of space to evoke certain effects in buyers.

Activity stores- let consumers participate in the production of the products or services they buy there.

Unplanned buying- when shopper recognizes a new need while in the store

Impulse buying- a irresistible spontaneous purchase

Point of purchase stimuli- in store display of a product.

11

Reference group- actual or imaginary individual or group conceived of having significant relevance upon an individuals evaluations, aspirations, or behavior.

Information influence, Utilitarian influence, Value-expressive influence.

Publicly v Privately and Luxury or necessity.

Reference groups influence Public and Luxury goods the most.

Social Power- the capacity to alter the actions of others.

Referent Power- admirable power, and drives consumers to identify with referent

Information power- power from information and access to the truth

Legitimate Power- Power by virtue of social agreements, such as authority of those in uniform

Reward Power- a person who has ability to provide positive reinforcement

Coercive Power-social or physical intimidation power.

Normative influence- reference group helps set and enforce fundamental standards of conduct

Comparative influence- affects a members decisions about certain things

Brand community- group of consumers who share a set of social relationships based upon usage or interest of a product.

Consumer tribe-a group of people who share a lifestyle and who can identify with others through shared emotions etc as part of their tribal affiliation.

Tribe marketing strategy- linking a product to a consumer tribe

Membership reference group- people that we actually know

Aspirational reference group­- we don’t know them but admire them anyways.

Deindividuation- a process where individual identities become submerged within a group

Social Loafing- when we don’t devote as much time to a task because we are in a group

Risky shift- people riskier in groups

Decision polarization- when a group decision becomes more extreme after group discussion.

Conformity- a change in beliefs or actions as a reaction to real or imagined group pressure.

Norms- informal rules that govern behavior

Word of mouth- is product info individuals transfer to ofther individuals. Negative more strong

Serial reproduction- examining how content mutates by word of mouth

Netnography- ethnographic techniques anthropologists use to examine cyberspace

Guerella marketing– uses unconventional locations and intensive word of mouth campaigns to push products.

McDougal Littell Marketing Notes


Consumer hyperchoice- a condition where the large number of available options forces us to make repeated choices that may drain psychological energy while decreasing our abilities to make smart decisions.

Rational perspective- integrating as much info as possible with what is already known about product, and evaluating alternatives, and choosing a satisfactory decision

Economics of informations- consumers will gather as much data as they need to make an informed decision.

Problem Recognition. Info Search. Evaluation of Alternatives. Product Choice. Outcomes

Purchase momentum– occurs when these initial impulses actually increase the likelihood that we will buy even more.

Behavioral influence perspective- the role the environment plays on purchase behavior

Experiential perspective-the totality of the product or service.

Extended problem solving- traditional decision-making perspective.

Limited Problem Solving- straightforward and simple, simple decision rules.

Habitual decision making- choices we make with little to no conscious effort – Automaticity

Problem recognition- When we see a significant difference between our current state and some statue.

Standard of comparison/ Opportunity recognition

Info Search- the process in which we survey the environment for appropriate data to make a reasonable decision

Prepurchase v Ongoing search

Internal search- scanning own memory

External Search- looking outside for things not known

Directed learning- learning through a previous different search

Incidental learning- learning through what we are exposed to

Variety seeking- the desire to choose new alternatives over more familiar ones.

Mental accounting- analysis of ppls responses to the decision making process.

Framing- how a problem is posed.

Prospect theory- describes how people make choices

Sunk-cost fallacy- paying for it makes us reluctant to waste it.

Loss aversion- we emphasize our losses more than our gains.

Percieved risk- belief that there may be negative consequences from using or not using a product or service

Monetary risk- risk of losing money

Functional risk-risk of not performing the function. Practical consumer ideology

Physical Risk- risk of physical injury.

Social Risk-risk of seeming weak. Those who are insecure

Psychological Risk- those lacking self respect or attractivemness to peers

Consideration set- alternatives a consumer knows about his evoked set and the ones that he actually considers

Knowledge structure- a set of beliefs and the way we organize these beliefs in our minds.

Basic level category- most useful to classify products because at this level, the items we group together tend to have a lot in common, but stil permit us to consider a broad enough range of alternatives.

Superordinate category– more abstact and broader

Subordinate category- specific and includes brands

Positioning strategy- how the product will be seen by the consumer

People with moderate search knowledge will search for the most info

Feature creep- proliferation of gizmos counterproductive.

Evaluative Criteria- dimensions we use to judge the mereits of competing options.

Determinant attributes- features we actually use to differentiate among our choises.

Neuromarketing- functional magnetic resonance imaging, brainscanning as we perform tasks.

Cybermediaries- helps filter and organize online market info so that customers can evaluate alternatives easier.

intelligent agents- sophisticated software programs that use collaborative filtering technologies to learn from past user behavior in order to recommend new purchases

heuristics- mental rules of thumb that lead to speedy decision.

Product signal- communicates an underlying quality of the product.

Covariation- the associations we have among events that may or may not actually influence one another.

Market beliefs- formed assumptions about companies, products, and stores.

Zipf’s Law- tendancy to prefer number one product

brand loyalty- repeat purchasing behavior of same brand.

Brand slut- a variety seeking customer with no brand loyalty >>>>>

Noncompensatory decision rules-when we feel that a product with low standing on 1 attribute cant compensate for this flaw by doing better on another attribute.

Lexicographic- selecting the brand that is best on most important attribute

Elimination-by-Aspects Rule- the buyer evaluates brands on most important attribute, but imposes cutoffs.

McDougal Littell Chapter 1

Conjunctive Rule-establishes cutoffs, and will choose a brand that meets all, but failure to meet, means cutoff.

Compensatory decision rules- no set cutoffs, lets products make up for shortcomings.

McDougal Littell Chapter 2

Simple additive rule- consumer chooses that has larges number of positive attributes.

Weighted additive rule- weights attributes based on relative importance, than rates attributes.

McDougal Littell Answers Law Cases Summary


McDougal Littell Answers

Plessy v Ferg- separate but equal accommodations

Brown v board of ed- reversed prior ruling about separate but equal because it violated equal protection clause.

PGA Tour v Martin-  Martin being disabled riding in a golf card did not fundamentally change the game

Carnival Cruise Lines v Shute-  Forum selection clause in the cruise ticket was enforceable and she must sue them in florida.

Ferlito v Johnson n Johnson-  cotton ignited on Fertito and he sued. JJ’s notion for J.N.O.V was granted because reasonable minds could not have reached the previous verdict.

Geier v American Honda- federal passive restraint safety standard preempted the District of Colombia’s tort law under which petitioner Geier sued, and dismissed his lawsuit.

Wickard v Filburn- Filburn violated law, and court upheald statute that it offected interstate commerce.

Reno v Condon- Congress has authority under Commerce Clause to eenact Federal Driver’s Privacy protection act.

US v Playboy- Sec 505 was overly broad restriction on legal content-based speech. And violated 1st ame.

Grutter v Bollinger and Michigan Law School- schools policy on using race as a plus factor did not violate equal protection clause.

Goodman v Walmart- she was false imprisoned and handcuffed in front of children

Roach v stern-  stern intentionally inflicted emotional distress.

Wilhelm v Flores- Wilhelm owed a duty of care to warn Flores the dangers of working with bees, and was negligent in not doing so.

James v Meow Media-  defendant videogame distributers did not owe a duty of care to the plaintiffs.

Palsgraf v Long Island Railroad Co- Railroad co was not the proximate cause of her injuries.

Matthias v Accor Economy Lodging/Motel 6 – motel 6’s willful and wanton conduct warranted award of damages.

Lilya v Greater Gulf State Fair- Riding mechanical bull is open and obvious danger, assumption of risk.

Cook v Whisell-Sherman- Dog owner strictly liable to mail carriers injuries.

Benedi v McNeil-  Negligent failure to warn Benedi about dangers of Tylenol.

Shoshone Coca-cola Bottling co v Dolinski- Nevada adapted strict liability for the bottling company.

Lakin v Senco- Nailgun was defectively designed, and Lakin was awarded damages.

Elsroth v Johnson Johnson- there was not a defect in packaging therefore the defendants were not liable for death.

J.E.M Ag Supply inc Farm Advantage v Pioneer Hi-Bred International-  sexually reproducing hybrid plants is patentable subject matter.

Newton v Beastie Boys-Beastie boy’s de minimis sampling of the song did not constitute copyright infringement.

Two Pesos v Taco Cabana- Trade dress is protectable under Lanham Act without proof of secondary meaning.

John Doe v GTE corp.  GTE not liable for nude videos,  because they were not a publisher.

Atwater v Lago Vista- fourth amendment permits police officers to make a warrantless arrest pursuant to a minor criminal offense.

Kyllo V US- Thermal imaging is a search, and evidence was thrown out.

City of Indianapolis v Edmond-  stopping vehicles without individual suspicion is unreasonable search and seizure.

City of Everett- under the objective theory of contracts,  the safe and its contents are now property of the buyers.

Wrench LLC v Taco Bell- taco bell breached an implied in fact contract

Mesaros v US- the advertising materials sent out by the US mint were a solicitation to make an offer, not an offer.

Lim v TV Corp International- TV corp breached contract

Alden v Presley- Presley’s promise was gratuitous promise not supported by consideration.

Cooper v Smith- gifts to Smith were not revocable just because engagement is off.

Dementas v Estate of Tallas- Dementas’s promise was unenforceable because it was based on past consideration

Jones v Free Flight Sports Aviation-  contract was valid because it was ratified as he continued doing business with them

Flood v Fidelity- poisoned husband for life insurance policy which was void under public policy.

Ryno v Tyra-  coin flip car bet, facts of incident conclude transfer of car was gift.

Zivich v Mentor Soccer Club- parents sig on exculpatory agreement releases other parties liability for injury damages McDougal Littell Answers

McDougal Littell Social Studies Material

McDougal Littell Answers

For business students, it is certainly important to have a basic understanding of the American legal system.  Business Law is a core class in the business curriculum, and the following is a summary of important concepts that were examined in the course.

An extra space was added between each concept to make it easier to read and study from, which I hope can comply with the assignment requirements.

Law – that which must be obeyed and followed by citizens subject to sanctions or legal consequences. A body of rules of action or conduct prescribed by a controlling authority and having binding legal force.

Laws: 1, Keep peace 2, Shape moral standards, 3. Promote social justice, 4. Maintain status quo, 5 Facilitate orderly change.6. Facilitate planning, 7, Provide a basis for compromise, 8. Maximize individual freedom

Common law– law developed by judges who issued their opinions when deciding a case. The principles announced in these cases became precedent for later judges deciding similar cases.

All states except Louisiana base their systems on English common law

Constitution of Law in US- supreme law of the land, Any law violating this is unconstitutional.

Legislative(congress)- enact law.. Executive (president)- power to enforce.. Judicial(courts) power to interpret and validate laws

Treaty a compact made between two or more nations.

Statute written law enacted by the legislative branch of the federal and state governments that establishes courses of conduct that must be adhered by covered parties.

Ordinance- law enacted by local government bodies such as cities and municipalities, countries, school districts, water districts.

Executive order– an order issued by a member of the executive branch of government.

Administrative agencies– (such as securities and exchange commission or FTC) that legislative and executive branches of fed and state government are empowered to establish. To enforce and interpret statutes. “fourth branch of government”

Judicial decision -a decision about an individual lawsuit issued by a federal or state court.

McDougal Littell Answers

Precedent– a rule of law established in a court decision. Lower courts must follow the precedent established by higher courts.

State decisis– “to stand by the decision” adhering to precedence. State precedents don’t need to be uniform but encouraged.

Critical legal thinking–  the process of specifying the issue presented by a case, identifying the key facts, finding and applying laws, and come to a conclusion.

Petitioner or appellant- may be either plaintiff or defendant who appeals a decision

Respondent or appeale – who must answer an appeal.

Case brief- a summary of each of the following items of a case: 1.case name and citation. 2. Key facts.3 issue prevented. 4.court holding.5 court’s reasoning.

532 U.S. 661  (volume 532 of US reports) (Page 661)

Limited-jurisdiction trial court- a court that hears matters of a specialized or limited nature

Small claims court– hears civil cases involving small dollar amounts,

General- jurisdiction court- a court that hears cases of a general nature that are not within the jurisdiction of limited jurisdiction trial courts.

Intermediate appellate court- hears appeals from the trial courts.

State supreme court- the highest court in a state court system; it hears appeals from intermediate state courts and certain trial court

US Supreme court- federal judges appointed for life by president, with advice and consent of senate .

Special federal courts– federal courts that hear matters of specialized or limited jurisdiction.

US district courts- the federal court system’s trial courts of general jurisdiction.

US court of appeals- the federal court system’s intermediate appellate courts.

Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit- a court of appeals in DC that has special appellate jurisdiction to review decisions of claims court, the Patent and Trademark office, and the Court of international trade.

US supreme court- the supreme court was created by article III of the US constitution. The supreme court is the highest court in the land and is in DC.

McDougal Littell Answers

Petition for certiorari- a petition asking for Supreme Court to hear a case.

Writ of certiorari- an official notice that the supreme court will review a case.

Plurality decision- if a majority reaches a decision but for diff reasons. It cannot be used as a precedent for later cases.

Subject matter jurisdiction– jurisdiction over subject matter of a lawsuit.

Federal question case– a case arising under the US constitution, treaties, or federal statues and regulations.

Diversity of citizenship- between 1 the citizens of different states, 2 a citizen of a state and a citizen of a foreign country,3, a citizen of a state and a foreign country where the foreign country is the plaintiff.

Exclusive Jurisdiction– jurisdiction held by only one court

Concurrent jurisdiction– jurisdiction shared by two or more courts

In personam jurisdiction- jurisdiction over the parties to a lawsuit.

Service of process– a summons being served on the defendant to obtain personal jurisdiction over him or her.

In rem jurisdiction– jurisdiction to hear a case because of jurisdiction over the property of a lawsuit.

Quasi in rem jurisdiction– jurisdiction allowed a plaintiff who obtains a judgement in 1 state to try to collect the judgment by attaching property of the defendant located in another state.

Long arm statute- a statute that extends a states jurisdiction to nonresidents who were not served a summons within the state. For 1.commiting tort in state. 2. Entered contract in state. 3 transacted business in a state that caused injury.

Forum selection- a contract provision that designates a certain court to hear any dispute concerning nonperformance of the contract.

Venue- a concept that requires lawsuits to be heard by the court with jurisdiction that is nearest the location in which the incident occurred or where the parties reside.

Litigation- the process of bringing, maintaining, and defending a lawsuit.

Pleadings- the paperwork that is filed with the court to initiate and respond to a lawsuit

Complaint– the document the plaintiff files with the court and serves on the defendant to initiate a lawsuit.

Summons- a court order directing the defendant to appear in court and answer the complaint.

Answer– the defendants written response to the plaintiff’s complaint that is filed with the court and served on the plaintiff.

Cross-complaint- a document filed by the defendant against the plaintiff to seek damages or some other remedy.

Reply- a document filed by the original plaintiff to answer the defendant’s cross-complaints.

Intervention- the act of others to join as parties to an existing lawsuit.

Consolidation- the act of a court to combine two or separate lawsuits into one.

Statute of limitations- establishes the period during which a plaintiff must bring a lawsuit against a defendant.

Discovery- process which each party engages in various activities to discover facts of the case from the other party and witnesses prior to trial.

Deposition– oral testimony given by a party or witness prior to trial. Given under oath and transcribed.

Deponent- the party who gives his or her disposition.

Interrogatories- written questions submitted by one party to another party. The questions must be answered in writing within a stipulated time

Production of documents– a request by one party to another party to produce all documents relevant to the case prior to the trial.

Physical or mental examination- a court ordered examination of a party to lawsuit before trial to determine the extent of the alleged injuries.

Pretrial motion- a motion a party can make to dispose of all or part of a lawsuit prior to trial.

Motion for judgment on the pleadings- alleges that if all the facts presented in pleadings as true, the party making the motion would win the lawsuit when the proper law is applied to these asserted facts.

Motion for summary judgment- asserts there are no factual disputes to be decided by the jury and that the proper law to the undisputed facts and decide the case without a jury. These motions are supported by affidavits, documents, and deposition testimony.

Settlement conference– a hearing before a trial in order to facilitate the settlement of a case. Also called Pretrial hearing

Trier of fact- the jury in a jury trial, the judge where there is not a jury trial.

Voir dire– the process whereby prospective jurors are asked questions by the judge and attorneys to determine whether they would be biased in their decision.

Judgment notwithstanding the verdict or judgment n.o.v- court overturns verdict if bias or jury misconduct.

Appeal- act of asking an appellate court to overturn a decision after the trial court’s final judgemt has been entered.

Alternative dispute resolution– Methods of resolving disputes other than litigation

Arbitration- a form of ADR in which the parties choose an impartial 3rd party to hear and decide the dispute.

Arbitration clause– a clause in a contract that requires disputes arising from contract to be submitted to arbitration.

Federal Arbitration Act FAA- federal statute that provides for the enforcement of most arbitration agreements.

Mediation- a form at ADR which parties choose a neutral 3rd party to act as a mediator, but not to make a concrete resolution.

Conciliation- a form of mediation in which the parties choose an interested third party to act as mediator of the dispute.

Minitrial- a retired judge or judicial referee decides a case hearing facts from both sides’ lawyers.

US Constitution- The fundamental law of the US , ratified by 1788. Includes Bill of Rights, made to create 3 branches of government, and protect individual rights.

Federalism– US form of government, the federal government and 50 state governments share powers.

Enumerated powers- Certain powers delegated to the fed government by the states

Checks and balances- a system built into US constitution that prevents any 1 of 3 branches to become too powerful.

Supremacy Clause- a clause of the US constitution that established that the federal Constitution, treaties, federal laws, and federal regulations are the supreme law of the land.

Preemption doctrine– the concept that federal law takes precedence over state or local law

Commerce Clause– a clause in the constitution that grants congress power to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several states as well as with Indian tribes.

Interstate commerce- commerce that moves between states or that affects commerce between them.

Police Power- the power of states to regulate private and business activity within their boarders.

Unduly burden interstate commerce- a concept which says that states may enact laws that protect or promote public health and safety, as long as the state does not unduly burden interstate commerce.

Bill of Rights- first 10 amendments to the constitution, which were added in 1791.

Due process clause of 14th amendment- limited intrusive actions by state and local governments.

Limited protection speech- government cannot forbit, but it can be subjected to time, place, or manner restrictions.

Offensive- speech that is offensive to many members of society

Commercial speech- Speech used by businesses such as advertising.

Unprotected speech- speech that is not protected by 1st amendment and may be forbidden by government.

Establishment Clause- a clause to the 1st amendment that prohibits the government from either establishing a state religion or promoting 1 religion over another.

Free exercise clause- a clause in the 1st amendment that prohibits the government from interfering with free exercise or religion

14th amendment- in 1868, contains due process, equal protection, and privileges and immunities clauses.

Equal Protection-provides that a state cannot deny to any person within its jurisdiction equal protection of laws.

Strict scrutiny test- a test that is applied to classifications based on race.

Intermediate scrutiny test- a test that is applied to classifications based on stuff other than race

Rational basis test- applied to classifications not involved a suspect or protected class.

Due Process Clause- provides that no person shall be deprived of life liberty or property without due process of law.

Substantive due process– a category of due process that requires government statutes , ordinances , or other laws be clear on their face and not be overly broad.

Procedural due process- a category of due process that requires government to give proper notice and hearing a legal action before the person is deprived of his life liberty or property.

Privileges and Immunities Clause- a clause that prohibits states from enacting laws that unduly discriminate in favor of their residents.

5

Tort- a wrong, 1.intentional,2.unintentional(negligence) 3. Strict liability

Intentional tort- requires defendant possessed the intent to do the act that caused plaintiff’s injuries

Assault- 1.threat of immediate harm of offensive contact 2 any action that arouses reasonable apprehension of imminent harm.

Battery- unauthorized and harmful or physical contact with another person.

False imprisonment– the intentional confinement or restraint of another person without authority or justification and without that persons consent.

Merchant protection statutes- allow merchants to stop,detain, investigate shoplifters if 1.there is reasonable grounds for suspicion 2.suspects are detained for only a reasonable time 3.investigations are conducted in a reasonable manner.

Tort of misappropriation of the right to publicity- an attempt by another person to appropriate a living person’s name or identity for commercial purposes.

Defamation of character – false statements about another, must prove that 1.defendant made untrue statements about plaintiff and 2.was intentionally or accidently published by 3rd party

Slander– oral defamation of character

Libel– a false statement that appears in a letter, newspaper, magazine, book, etc

Product disparagement– false statements about competitors products, services, etc.

Intentional misrepresentation- the intentional defrauding a person out of something of value.

Intentional infliction of emotional distress- says a person can be held responsible for extreme outrageous and reckless harmful conduct.

Malicious prosecution- a lawsuit in which the original defendant sues the plaintiff for the trial before.

Trespass to land- a tort that interferes with an owners right to exclusive possession of land.

Trespass to personal property- occurs when one person injures another persons personal property or interferes with their enjoyment of it.

Unintentional tort/Negligence- says a person is liable for harm that is the foreseeable consequences of their actions.

Duty of care- the obligation we all owe eachother not to cause any unreasonable risks of harm.

Breach of the duty of care– failure to exercise care or to act as a reasonable person would act.

Injury- a plaintiffs personal injury or damage to his or her property that enablem them to recover monetary damages for defendant negligence.

Actual cause- the actual cause of negligence. A person who commits a negligent act is not liable unless actual cause can be proven. Causation in fact.

Proximate cause- a point along a chain of events caused by a negligent party after which this party is no longer legally responsible for the consequences of their actions.

Professional malpractice- the liability of a professional who breaches his or her duty of ordinary care.

Negligent infliction of emotional distress– permits a person to recover for emotional distress caused by defendants negligence

Negligence per se- a violation of a statute or ordinance constitutes the beach of the duty of care.

Res ipsa loquitur- the thing speaks for itself ‘fault’

Good Samaritan law- a statute that relives medical professionals from liability for ordinary negligence when they stop and render aid to victims in emergency situations.

Dram shop act– makes bars liable for injuries caused to or by patrons who are served too much alcohol.

Guest statute-if a driver voluntarily gives a ride, the passenger cannot sue for injuries caused by driver’s ordinary negligence.

Fireman’s rule- firefighters can’t sue negligent fire-setting people.

Social host liability – provides hosts are liable for injuries caused by intoxicated guests.

Duty of ordinary care- the duty an owner owes an invitee or a licensee to prevent injury or harm when the invitee steps on owners premises.

Duty not to willfully or wantonly injure- prevents harm to trespassers by owners.

Duty of utmost care- says that common carriers and innkeepers have responsibility to provide security to their guests.

Superseding event- an event a defendant is not responsible for.

Assumption of risk- defense a defendant can use against plaintiff who voluntarily enters and participates in risky activity that results in injury.

Contributory negligence- a doctrine that says a plaintiff who is partially at fault for his or her own injury cannot recover against negligent defendant.

Comparative negligence- a doctrine under which damages are apportioned according to fault.

Strict liability- liability without fault.

Products liability- the liability of manufacturers and sellers have for injuries caused by defective products.

Chain of distribution- all manufacturers, distributers, etc involved in a transaction.

In negligence lawsuit- only negligent party is liable. In strict liability lawsuit, whole chain of distribution is liable.

Punitive damages- damages awarded to punish a defendant who either intentionally or recklessly injured a plaintiff.

Product defect- something wrong in a product

Crashworthiness doctrine- car makers are under duty to design cars that take into account extra injuries in a car crash.

Failure to warn- a defect that occurs when a manufacturer does not place a warning on the packaging of products that could cause injury if danger is unknown.

Defect in packaging- a defect that occurs when a product has been placed in packaging that is insufficiently tamperproof.

Failure to provide adequate instructions- a defect that occurs when a manufacturer does not provide detailed directions for safe assembly and use of a product

Generally known dangers- a defense that acknowledges that certain products are inherently dangerous and are known by general population to be so.

Government contractor defense- says a contractor who was provided specifications by the government is not liable for any defect in the product that occurs as a result of those specifications

Misuse- a defense that relieves a seller of product liability if their user abnormally misused the product. Products must be designed to protect against foreseeable misuse.

Supervening event- an alteration of modification of product by a party in the chain of distribution that absolves all prior sellers from strict liability.

Statute of limitations- requires an injured person to bring an action within a certain number of years from the time that they were injured by a product.

Statute of repose- limits the sellers liability to a certain number of years from the date when the product was sold.

Contributory negligence- a defense that says a person who is injured by a defect but was also negligent cannot recover prom defendant.

Comparative fault- applies to strict liability, says a plaintiff who is negligent is responsible for their share.

McDougal Littell Literature Answers


McDougal Littell Answers are a premier way to expand one’s understanding of writing and literature.  Classic forms of writing, that date back to ancient mandarin ruins reveal an ancient for of literature, the necromancies.

The book contained ancient descriptions of the culture’s diverse etiquette and writing expertise. The foundation for sentence structure was the most interesting facet of all.  The preposition of the sentence, usually very bold. Very intriguing however, is that the adverbs and fragments that the race consistently used caused very “choppy” sentences.

The other unique feature of the ancient writing style is the way they distributed their McDougal Littell answers. The answers took the form of textbook and workbooks. The workbook answers were provided for the special tone and plot of the show. It highly recommended that grammar and punctuation be very precise. After all, how else could a professional and paid literature-technetium understand so much about this material.

McDougal Littell Biology Answers


McDougal Littell textbooks cover many different courses and subjects. One of the subjects is Biology. Biology is one of the most interesting fields of study because it studies the very foundation of our existance and nature.

Living organisms are divided into different groups to make identifiying and categorizing them easier. McDougal Littell answers reveal that these groups are called: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Geneus, Species

The way mcdougal littell answers works is that the textbook conveys the question of study and the answers are relayed by the website.  The internet is so darastic and non-static that many independent researchers feel that you could almost classify the internet as a living organism.

Biology is a terrific field-of-study for its ingenuity and breakthroughs. Even though the laws of gravity and motion, are considered physics, it is considered to be a work of God, and to me, is a piece of the biological spectrum. McDougal Littell biology answers are illuminated through atomic journalism and press releases. The earth’s position and space, as fascinating as it is,  is considered astrology and astronomy. Although they are very different, the are both very involved in exterritorial study. The filed of motion is fascinating and holds many answers for our very existence.