McDougal Littell Political Science Answers

McDougal Littell Answers

Interpersonal need- a person’s level of interest in a group.

Product involvement and utility- the degree to which a person will use the product to satisfy a need

Responsibility-procurement, maintenance, payment, so on

Power- the degree to which one family members exerts their influence over others

Autonomic decision- one member chooses a product

Syncretic decision- a decision that involves boths partners

Gender convergence- men and women having similar roles in the households rather than stereotypical roles.

family financial officer FFO-the individual who tracks the family’s bills and decides how to spend the rest

kin-network system- performing rituals to maintain tires among family members

four factors appear to determine the degree of which one of the spouses decide what to buy:

sex-role stereotypes- couples who believe in traditional sex role stereotypes

spousal resources- the spouse who contributes more resources to the family  has greater influence

experience- couples who have gained experience as a decision-making unit make individual decisions more frequently

socioeconomic status- middle-class families make more joint decision than do either higher or lower class families

synoptic idea- calls for husband and wife to take common view and act as joint decision makers

children make up 3 distinct markets:

Primary market- their own wants and needs.

Influence Market- result of parental tielding, child influenced shoppers

Parental yielding- occurs when a parental decision maker surrenders to a child’s request. Nag factor

Future market- growing up into adults with locked on brand loyalty.

Consumer socialization- the process by which young people aquire skills, and attitudes relevant to their position in the marketplace.

Stages of cognitive development- ability to comprehend concepts of increasing complexity

Limited- children who are younger than 6, don’t employ storage and retrieval skills

Cued- 6-12, employ these stratagies when prompted

Strategic- 12­+ who spontaneously employ storage and retrieval strategies.


Status symbols- products that are used as markers of social class

Discretionary income- the money available to a household over and above what it requires to have a confortable standard of living.

Brand aspirationals- people with low incomes who are obsessed with brand names

Price-sensitive affluents- wealthier shoppers who love deals McDougal Littell

Value-price shoppers- those who like low prices and cannot afford much more

Behavioral economics- economic psychology,  studies the human side of ecomonic decisions

Consumer confidence-reflects the extent to which peole are optimistic or pessimistic about the future health of the economy.

Social class- overall rank in society

Homogamy- assortative mating. Birds of a feather flock together

Social stratification- the creation of artificial divisions

Status hierchy – a structure of people in a social group.

social mobility- passage of individuals from one social class to another

horizontal – from position to position but same social class

occupational prestige- how your occupation displays status

income- great factor in social class

status crystallization- stress occurs because the rewards from each part of a persons life are unpredictable

problems w measuring social class-

ignore status inconsistency, ignore intergenerational mobility, ignore subjective social class, ignore consumers aspirations to change class standing, they ignore the social class of working wives

Restricted codes- working/lower class. Focus on the content of objects.

Elaborated code- more complex and depend on sophisticated world view.

Habitus- taste is a statu-marking force

Cultural capital- set of distinctive and socially rare tastes and practices-upper class.

Conspicuous consumption- to refer to peoples desires to provide prominate visible evidence of their ability to afford luxury goods.

Parody display- reverse gears in status symbols, and mock them.


Subculture- group memberships within a society

Mircoculture- ‘tuners’ freely choose to identify with a lifestyle

Ethnic subculture- a self-perpetuating group of consumers who share common cultural or generic ties, where both members and outsiders recognize it as a distinct category.

High context culture-group members closely knit,  symbolys and gestures carry the weight.

Low context culture- words carry the weight, very literal.

Deethnicization– when a product we associate with a specific group detaches itself from its roots and becomes mass marketed

Acculturation-process of movement and adaptation to one country’s cultural environment by a person from another country.

Acculturation agents- people and institutions that teach the ways of a culture.

Progressive learning model- assums that people gradually learn about a new culture as they increasingly come in contact with it