McDougal Littell Answers for Marketing and Business

Warming- the process of transforming objects and places to feel cozy and authentic.


Age cohort- people of similar ages who have similar experiences

Autonomy v belonging-independence struggle

Revellion v conformity- need to rebel

Idealism v pragmatism- viewing adults as hypocrites and kids as reasonable

Narcissim v intimacy- own appearance and needs v connecting w others

tweens- 8-14 between kid and adolescent

gen y- millenials , eco bombers

connexity- feeling loose but connected with your homies

marketing to kids- don’t talk down, stay true to brand image, entertain men and keep it short, show that you know what they are going through, but keep it light

gen x- born from 66 to 76.

Baby boomer- 46 to 64

Gray market-older adults. Control 50 percent of discretionary income.

Autonomy, connectedness, altruism(giving back)

Perceived age- how old a person feels


Culture- a society’s personality. An accumulation of shared meanings, rituals, norms, and traditions among members of a society

Ecology- way a system adapts to its habitat

Social structure- the way people maintain orderly social life

Ideology-mental characteristics of a people and the way they relate to their environment and social groups

Enacted – simple rule, stoplight

Crescive norms- more subtle and hidden

Custom- handed down from others, controls basic behaviors

McDougal Littell Answers for Marketing and Business

More- a custom with a strong moral overtone, usually involves a taboo

Conventions- norms regarding conduct of everyday life

Myth- a story with symbolic elements that represent a culture’s ideals

Metaphysical- help explain existence

Cosmological- emphasizes unity among all aspects of life

Sociological- maintain social code for members of society

Psychological- models for personal conduct.

Monomyth-a myth that is common to many cultures

Ritual-a set of multiple, symbolic behaviors that occurs in a fixed sequence and is repeated periodically

Fortress brands- brands that are closely linked to our rituals.

Ritual artifacts- items we need to perform rituals.

Grooming rituals-sequences to transform private self to public self

Antifestival –an event that distorts symbols we associate with other holidays

Rites  of passage- rituals we perform to mark a change in social status. Separation, liminality, aggregation

Sacred consumption- when we set apart objects and events from normal activities.

Profane consumption­- ordinary and everyday objects

Contamination- transforms a spot to a sacred place

Desacralization- when a sacred object loses its specialness

Sacralization- when ordinary objects take on a sacred meaning.

McDougal Littell Answers for Marketing and Business Collecting- systematic acquisition of objects

Hoarding – unsystematic collecting


Aplia Answers   =

McDougal Littell Political Science Answers

McDougal Littell Answers

Interpersonal need- a person’s level of interest in a group.

Product involvement and utility- the degree to which a person will use the product to satisfy a need

Responsibility-procurement, maintenance, payment, so on

Power- the degree to which one family members exerts their influence over others

Autonomic decision- one member chooses a product

Syncretic decision- a decision that involves boths partners

Gender convergence- men and women having similar roles in the households rather than stereotypical roles.

family financial officer FFO-the individual who tracks the family’s bills and decides how to spend the rest

kin-network system- performing rituals to maintain tires among family members

four factors appear to determine the degree of which one of the spouses decide what to buy:

sex-role stereotypes- couples who believe in traditional sex role stereotypes

spousal resources- the spouse who contributes more resources to the family  has greater influence

experience- couples who have gained experience as a decision-making unit make individual decisions more frequently

socioeconomic status- middle-class families make more joint decision than do either higher or lower class families

synoptic idea- calls for husband and wife to take common view and act as joint decision makers

children make up 3 distinct markets:

Primary market- their own wants and needs.

Influence Market- result of parental tielding, child influenced shoppers

Parental yielding- occurs when a parental decision maker surrenders to a child’s request. Nag factor

Future market- growing up into adults with locked on brand loyalty.

Consumer socialization- the process by which young people aquire skills, and attitudes relevant to their position in the marketplace.

Stages of cognitive development- ability to comprehend concepts of increasing complexity

Limited- children who are younger than 6, don’t employ storage and retrieval skills

Cued- 6-12, employ these stratagies when prompted

Strategic- 12­+ who spontaneously employ storage and retrieval strategies.


Status symbols- products that are used as markers of social class

Discretionary income- the money available to a household over and above what it requires to have a confortable standard of living.

Brand aspirationals- people with low incomes who are obsessed with brand names

Price-sensitive affluents- wealthier shoppers who love deals McDougal Littell

Value-price shoppers- those who like low prices and cannot afford much more

Behavioral economics- economic psychology,  studies the human side of ecomonic decisions

Consumer confidence-reflects the extent to which peole are optimistic or pessimistic about the future health of the economy.

Social class- overall rank in society

Homogamy- assortative mating. Birds of a feather flock together

Social stratification- the creation of artificial divisions

Status hierchy – a structure of people in a social group.

social mobility- passage of individuals from one social class to another

horizontal – from position to position but same social class

occupational prestige- how your occupation displays status

income- great factor in social class

status crystallization- stress occurs because the rewards from each part of a persons life are unpredictable

problems w measuring social class-

ignore status inconsistency, ignore intergenerational mobility, ignore subjective social class, ignore consumers aspirations to change class standing, they ignore the social class of working wives

Restricted codes- working/lower class. Focus on the content of objects.

Elaborated code- more complex and depend on sophisticated world view.

Habitus- taste is a statu-marking force

Cultural capital- set of distinctive and socially rare tastes and practices-upper class.

Conspicuous consumption- to refer to peoples desires to provide prominate visible evidence of their ability to afford luxury goods.

Parody display- reverse gears in status symbols, and mock them.


Subculture- group memberships within a society

Mircoculture- ‘tuners’ freely choose to identify with a lifestyle

Ethnic subculture- a self-perpetuating group of consumers who share common cultural or generic ties, where both members and outsiders recognize it as a distinct category.

High context culture-group members closely knit,  symbolys and gestures carry the weight.

Low context culture- words carry the weight, very literal.

Deethnicization– when a product we associate with a specific group detaches itself from its roots and becomes mass marketed

Acculturation-process of movement and adaptation to one country’s cultural environment by a person from another country.

Acculturation agents- people and institutions that teach the ways of a culture.

Progressive learning model- assums that people gradually learn about a new culture as they increasingly come in contact with it

McDougal Littell Answers, Marketing p 2

McDougal Littell Answers

Antecedent states- situational factors, usage contexts, time pressure, mood, shopping orientation.

Purchase environment- the shopping experience, Point-Of-Purchase stimuli, Sales Interactions

Postpurchase Processes- customer satisfaction, product disposal, alternative markets.

Situational self-image- the role she plays at any one time.

Co-consumer- the other patrons in a setting, actually a product attribute.

Time poverty- a feeling of being pressed for time

Social dimension ­– time for me or time for others

Temporal orientation dimension-depicts the relative significance individuals attach to past,present, future

Planning orientation dimension- alludes to different time management styles varying on a continuum from analytic to spontaneous.

Polychromic orientation- distinguishing people who do one thing at a time from people who multitask.

Timestyle- an individuals priorities determine this

McDougal Littell Answers Chapter 7

Linear separable time- events proceed in an orderly sequence and there is a time and placefor everything

Procedural time- ignores clock, things are done when time is right

Cyclic time-time is a natural cycle of regular occurances.

Queuing theory- the mathematical study of waiting in lines.

Pleasure and Arousal are the two basic dimensions of a consumption environment.

Shopping orientation- general attitudes about shopping.

Hedonic shopping motives: (for the experience)

Social Experiences- having a fun time with others

Sharing of common interests-communicating with those of similar interests

McDougal Littell Answers Chapter 6

Interpersonal attraction- having activities and a feeling of belonging

Instant status- feeling special when shopping

Thrill of the hunt- thrill of haggling and bargoning

Retail theming- transports shoppers to fantasy worlds or other kinds of simulation to entertain.

Being space- resembles a commercial living room

Minipreneurs- one person besiness

Popup stores- temporary makeshift installations that do business for a limited period of time

Store image- personality of the store.

Atmospherics – the conscious designing of space to evoke certain effects in buyers.

Activity stores- let consumers participate in the production of the products or services they buy there.

Unplanned buying- when shopper recognizes a new need while in the store

Impulse buying- a irresistible spontaneous purchase

Point of purchase stimuli- in store display of a product.


Reference group- actual or imaginary individual or group conceived of having significant relevance upon an individuals evaluations, aspirations, or behavior.

Information influence, Utilitarian influence, Value-expressive influence.

Publicly v Privately and Luxury or necessity.

Reference groups influence Public and Luxury goods the most.

Social Power- the capacity to alter the actions of others.

Referent Power- admirable power, and drives consumers to identify with referent

Information power- power from information and access to the truth

Legitimate Power- Power by virtue of social agreements, such as authority of those in uniform

Reward Power- a person who has ability to provide positive reinforcement

Coercive Power-social or physical intimidation power.

Normative influence- reference group helps set and enforce fundamental standards of conduct

Comparative influence- affects a members decisions about certain things

Brand community- group of consumers who share a set of social relationships based upon usage or interest of a product.

Consumer tribe-a group of people who share a lifestyle and who can identify with others through shared emotions etc as part of their tribal affiliation.

Tribe marketing strategy- linking a product to a consumer tribe

Membership reference group- people that we actually know

Aspirational reference group­- we don’t know them but admire them anyways.

Deindividuation- a process where individual identities become submerged within a group

Social Loafing- when we don’t devote as much time to a task because we are in a group

Risky shift- people riskier in groups

Decision polarization- when a group decision becomes more extreme after group discussion.

Conformity- a change in beliefs or actions as a reaction to real or imagined group pressure.

Norms- informal rules that govern behavior

Word of mouth- is product info individuals transfer to ofther individuals. Negative more strong

Serial reproduction- examining how content mutates by word of mouth

Netnography- ethnographic techniques anthropologists use to examine cyberspace

Guerella marketing– uses unconventional locations and intensive word of mouth campaigns to push products.

McDougal Littell Marketing Notes

Consumer hyperchoice- a condition where the large number of available options forces us to make repeated choices that may drain psychological energy while decreasing our abilities to make smart decisions.

Rational perspective- integrating as much info as possible with what is already known about product, and evaluating alternatives, and choosing a satisfactory decision

Economics of informations- consumers will gather as much data as they need to make an informed decision.

Problem Recognition. Info Search. Evaluation of Alternatives. Product Choice. Outcomes

Purchase momentum– occurs when these initial impulses actually increase the likelihood that we will buy even more.

Behavioral influence perspective- the role the environment plays on purchase behavior

Experiential perspective-the totality of the product or service.

Extended problem solving- traditional decision-making perspective.

Limited Problem Solving- straightforward and simple, simple decision rules.

Habitual decision making- choices we make with little to no conscious effort – Automaticity

Problem recognition- When we see a significant difference between our current state and some statue.

Standard of comparison/ Opportunity recognition

Info Search- the process in which we survey the environment for appropriate data to make a reasonable decision

Prepurchase v Ongoing search

Internal search- scanning own memory

External Search- looking outside for things not known

Directed learning- learning through a previous different search

Incidental learning- learning through what we are exposed to

Variety seeking- the desire to choose new alternatives over more familiar ones.

Mental accounting- analysis of ppls responses to the decision making process.

Framing- how a problem is posed.

Prospect theory- describes how people make choices

Sunk-cost fallacy- paying for it makes us reluctant to waste it.

Loss aversion- we emphasize our losses more than our gains.

Percieved risk- belief that there may be negative consequences from using or not using a product or service

Monetary risk- risk of losing money

Functional risk-risk of not performing the function. Practical consumer ideology

Physical Risk- risk of physical injury.

Social Risk-risk of seeming weak. Those who are insecure

Psychological Risk- those lacking self respect or attractivemness to peers

Consideration set- alternatives a consumer knows about his evoked set and the ones that he actually considers

Knowledge structure- a set of beliefs and the way we organize these beliefs in our minds.

Basic level category- most useful to classify products because at this level, the items we group together tend to have a lot in common, but stil permit us to consider a broad enough range of alternatives.

Superordinate category– more abstact and broader

Subordinate category- specific and includes brands

Positioning strategy- how the product will be seen by the consumer

People with moderate search knowledge will search for the most info

Feature creep- proliferation of gizmos counterproductive.

Evaluative Criteria- dimensions we use to judge the mereits of competing options.

Determinant attributes- features we actually use to differentiate among our choises.

Neuromarketing- functional magnetic resonance imaging, brainscanning as we perform tasks.

Cybermediaries- helps filter and organize online market info so that customers can evaluate alternatives easier.

intelligent agents- sophisticated software programs that use collaborative filtering technologies to learn from past user behavior in order to recommend new purchases

heuristics- mental rules of thumb that lead to speedy decision.

Product signal- communicates an underlying quality of the product.

Covariation- the associations we have among events that may or may not actually influence one another.

Market beliefs- formed assumptions about companies, products, and stores.

Zipf’s Law- tendancy to prefer number one product

brand loyalty- repeat purchasing behavior of same brand.

Brand slut- a variety seeking customer with no brand loyalty >>>>>

Noncompensatory decision rules-when we feel that a product with low standing on 1 attribute cant compensate for this flaw by doing better on another attribute.

Lexicographic- selecting the brand that is best on most important attribute

Elimination-by-Aspects Rule- the buyer evaluates brands on most important attribute, but imposes cutoffs.

McDougal Littell Chapter 1

Conjunctive Rule-establishes cutoffs, and will choose a brand that meets all, but failure to meet, means cutoff.

Compensatory decision rules- no set cutoffs, lets products make up for shortcomings.

McDougal Littell Chapter 2

Simple additive rule- consumer chooses that has larges number of positive attributes.

Weighted additive rule- weights attributes based on relative importance, than rates attributes.

McDougal Littell Answers Law Cases Summary

McDougal Littell Answers

Plessy v Ferg- separate but equal accommodations

Brown v board of ed- reversed prior ruling about separate but equal because it violated equal protection clause.

PGA Tour v Martin-  Martin being disabled riding in a golf card did not fundamentally change the game

Carnival Cruise Lines v Shute-  Forum selection clause in the cruise ticket was enforceable and she must sue them in florida.

Ferlito v Johnson n Johnson-  cotton ignited on Fertito and he sued. JJ’s notion for J.N.O.V was granted because reasonable minds could not have reached the previous verdict.

Geier v American Honda- federal passive restraint safety standard preempted the District of Colombia’s tort law under which petitioner Geier sued, and dismissed his lawsuit.

Wickard v Filburn- Filburn violated law, and court upheald statute that it offected interstate commerce.

Reno v Condon- Congress has authority under Commerce Clause to eenact Federal Driver’s Privacy protection act.

US v Playboy- Sec 505 was overly broad restriction on legal content-based speech. And violated 1st ame.

Grutter v Bollinger and Michigan Law School- schools policy on using race as a plus factor did not violate equal protection clause.

Goodman v Walmart- she was false imprisoned and handcuffed in front of children

Roach v stern-  stern intentionally inflicted emotional distress.

Wilhelm v Flores- Wilhelm owed a duty of care to warn Flores the dangers of working with bees, and was negligent in not doing so.

James v Meow Media-  defendant videogame distributers did not owe a duty of care to the plaintiffs.

Palsgraf v Long Island Railroad Co- Railroad co was not the proximate cause of her injuries.

Matthias v Accor Economy Lodging/Motel 6 – motel 6’s willful and wanton conduct warranted award of damages.

Lilya v Greater Gulf State Fair- Riding mechanical bull is open and obvious danger, assumption of risk.

Cook v Whisell-Sherman- Dog owner strictly liable to mail carriers injuries.

Benedi v McNeil-  Negligent failure to warn Benedi about dangers of Tylenol.

Shoshone Coca-cola Bottling co v Dolinski- Nevada adapted strict liability for the bottling company.

Lakin v Senco- Nailgun was defectively designed, and Lakin was awarded damages.

Elsroth v Johnson Johnson- there was not a defect in packaging therefore the defendants were not liable for death.

J.E.M Ag Supply inc Farm Advantage v Pioneer Hi-Bred International-  sexually reproducing hybrid plants is patentable subject matter.

Newton v Beastie Boys-Beastie boy’s de minimis sampling of the song did not constitute copyright infringement.

Two Pesos v Taco Cabana- Trade dress is protectable under Lanham Act without proof of secondary meaning.

John Doe v GTE corp.  GTE not liable for nude videos,  because they were not a publisher.

Atwater v Lago Vista- fourth amendment permits police officers to make a warrantless arrest pursuant to a minor criminal offense.

Kyllo V US- Thermal imaging is a search, and evidence was thrown out.

City of Indianapolis v Edmond-  stopping vehicles without individual suspicion is unreasonable search and seizure.

City of Everett- under the objective theory of contracts,  the safe and its contents are now property of the buyers.

Wrench LLC v Taco Bell- taco bell breached an implied in fact contract

Mesaros v US- the advertising materials sent out by the US mint were a solicitation to make an offer, not an offer.

Lim v TV Corp International- TV corp breached contract

Alden v Presley- Presley’s promise was gratuitous promise not supported by consideration.

Cooper v Smith- gifts to Smith were not revocable just because engagement is off.

Dementas v Estate of Tallas- Dementas’s promise was unenforceable because it was based on past consideration

Jones v Free Flight Sports Aviation-  contract was valid because it was ratified as he continued doing business with them

Flood v Fidelity- poisoned husband for life insurance policy which was void under public policy.

Ryno v Tyra-  coin flip car bet, facts of incident conclude transfer of car was gift.

Zivich v Mentor Soccer Club- parents sig on exculpatory agreement releases other parties liability for injury damages McDougal Littell Answers

McDougal Littell Literature Answers

McDougal Littell Answers are a premier way to expand one’s understanding of writing and literature.  Classic forms of writing, that date back to ancient mandarin ruins reveal an ancient for of literature, the necromancies.

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McDougal Littell Biology Answers

McDougal Littell textbooks cover many different courses and subjects. One of the subjects is Biology. Biology is one of the most interesting fields of study because it studies the very foundation of our existance and nature.

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McDougal Littell Answers Explanation Part 1

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